What Is A Kahuna?
There is still a lot of misunderstanding about Hawaiian kahunas, so I'm writing this to bring some clarity to the subject.
According to Lorrin Andrews, author of the first Hawaiian dictionary published in 1865, "kahuna" is a contraction of "kahu" (to cook, especially in an earth oven) and "ana" (a particle that adds "ing" to a word). So the base meaning by this idea is "a cooking." This doesn't make much sense until you learn that "kahu" also means "to tend an oven, or to take care of the cooking." Ancient Hawaiian thought, from our point of view, was very symbolic or figurative and a word for one type of activity or experience could be applied to other symbolically related activities or experiences. So "kahu," originally referring to taking care of an oven, became a general word for taking care of anything. Another possible origin for the word "kahuna," however, is that it is simply a combination of "kahu" (to take care of) and "na" (a particle that makes words into nouns). In that case, a basic translation of "kahuna" would be "a caretaker."
Over time languages change and at some point "kahu" and "kahuna" both became nouns with somewhat different meanings. The word "kahu" came to refer not only to caretakers, but to what are now known as "care-givers," as well as to administrators, regents, pastors, masters and mistresses of households, dog-owners, and leaders of clubs, associations, orders and other groups. The word "kahuna," according to J.S. Emerson, an early observer of Hawaiian culture, "suggests more of the professional relation of the priest to the community."
Andrews, mentioned above, defines a "kahuna" as "a general name applied to such persons as have a trade, an art, or who practice some profession." He says that some qualifying term is generally added, such as "kahuna lapa'au, a physician; kahuna pule, a priest; kahuna kalai la'au, a carpenter; kahuna kala, a silversmith." He also notes that "the word kahuna without any qualifying term (generally) refers to the priest or the person who offers sacrifices." Pukui and Elbert, authors of the modern standard Hawaiian dictionary, define a kahuna as a "priest, sorcerer, magician, wizard, minister, expert in any profession (whether male of female)." They add that under the 1845 laws of the Hawaiian kingdom doctors, surgeons and dentists were called kahuna.
David Malo, author of Hawaiian Antiquities , writes only about kahunas as priests and healers without going into a lot of detail about their organization. Samuel Kamakau, in The People of Old , goes into quite a bit of detail about the classes of sorcerers and healers, priests and prophets, and also mentions kahuna geologists, geomancers, psychics, martial artists, spear-throwers, "and many other classes besides." In Ruling Chiefs of Hawaii Kamakau describes a kahuna, Paka'a, who was a master of geology, psychic perception, and navigation. He also describes many kahuna craftsmen who were chosen by Kamehameha the Great to be in charge of canoe-making, surf-board making, bowl-making, dyeing, navigation, and many other crafts. In addition, Kamakau briefly describes the rules followed by boys who were in training to become kahunas. John Papa I'i, writing from 1866 to 1870, gives a fair amount of detail about the priestly kahunas and the practices of the medical kahunas of the time.
In Volume One of Look To The Source by Pukui, Hertig and Lee, kahunas of old Hawaii are discussed in roles of sorcerers, priests and healers, but someone added this footnote on one page: "kahunas intensively trained in the traditional manner no longer exist," which is only a statement about the limited knowledge of whoever wrote that. In Volume Two the word "kahu" is defined as master or expert, with "ana" being added as Andrews suggested. Shortly after there is a quote from Mary Pukui who describes her grandfather as a kahuna canoe-maker, a kahuna fisherman, and a medical kahuna. This is followed by an interesting chapter on medical kahunas with some brief mentions of sorcerers, prophets, and modern fakes or healers and psychics only called kahunas by their clients. Also of interest is a short discussion of payment for services. It says that while some modern Hawaiians believe that medical kahunas did not charge for their services, several quotes are given from early Hawaiian writers who make it clear that, at least sometimes, they did accept offerings of pigs, food or tapa in exchange for their help. And it discusses some kahunas who set fees when a cash economy became prevalent.
Now what can we learn from this very brief historical survey of kahunas?
In Territorial times, when Hawaii became a tourist destination, visitors discovered that the best surfer on the beach was called "kahuna nui he'e nalu," the "principal master surfer." Because of his expertise he was also the leader among the surfers, and they would follow his advice on boards and waves and the skill itself. He was called "kahuna nui" for short, and this soon became the phrase "big kahuna," which took on meanings of "big boss" or even "the biggest and the best" in any area, including hamburgers.
In modern times the word "kahuna" is used and misused in many ways. Some people without any traditional Hawaiian knowledge or training claim to have been "initiated" as kahunas, something which Hawaiians of old would have laughed at or been shocked by. Some Hawaiians fear the word because they automatically relate it to sorcery, and some Hawaiians say that no one can be a kahuna who isn't Hawaiian. Visitors come to Hawaii looking for a "kahuna," which for some means a psychic healer and for others means a shaman.
How do you know if someone is really a kahuna? There are no hard and fast rules, and there never have been. A deep knowledge and understanding of Hawaiian culture would seem to be a must if the word is to have any meaning in a Hawaiian context. In old Hawaii the main test would have been one's level of expertise in a given field of importance to Hawaiians. The teacher is the one who grants the title, so being able to name the teacher would seem to be a factor, too.
I was trained in a traditional way in "kalakupua," or "kupua" for short, a near equivalent to "shamanism," by my Auntie Laka and my Uncle Wana of the Kahili family, who originally came from Kauai. I was hanai'ed into that family as the grandson of Joseph Kahili in 1957. My last teacher, Wana Kahili, granted me the title of "kahuna kupua" in 1975 on Goleta Beach, California, based on the results of more than twenty years of training (including time with my father). Like most who have received a similar honor, I don't have a certificate to "prove" it and, since it was a private ceremony, there aren't any witnesses to attest to it. But I know what I know, and I know how to do what I do. That's enough for me.
However, I don't use that title any more. One aspect of Hawaiian culture I learned is to avoid offending others when you don't have to and some Hawaiians are offended by my use of it. So I am "kahu" to members of my organization who want to call me by a title, "Dr. King" to those who want to acknowledge my doctorate in psychology, and simply "Serge" to the rest of the world. I have Hawaiian names as well, but I honor my birth parents by publicly using the name they gave me.
So, what is a kahuna? Just a title that means what you think it does. If you meet a kahuna, respect the person for what he or she can do, more than for the title.
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Copyright by Aloha International 2001